Factors Affecting Interaction in a Distance Education via Video Conferencing

Yiğit Emrah TURGUT, Hasan KARAL
3.865 1.004


The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting the interaction between instructor and students in a distance education process via video conferencing. In the study, case study, one of the qualitative research patterns, has been adopted and contrary case sampling, one of the purposive sampling methods, has been used. The data, which was collected through interviews and observations, have been analyzed with the method of content analysis method in the study. The findings are in the direction that the methods and techniques of the instructor with his supportive behaviors for interaction have a big impact on the interaction. In addition, the properties of students such as prior knowledge and self-confidence have been seen to affect the interaction. It has been concluded that other factors which affect the interaction were technical problems such as muting and disconnection, and communication difficulties such as the inability for eye contact and misfiring of gestures and mimics.

Keywords: video-conferencing, distance education, interaction


video-conferencing, distance education, interaction

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Appendix A. Interaction Observation Form


Type of Interaction I-C I-S S-I S-S Social Procedural Expository Explanatory Cognitive

The following explanations have been made in the study of Oliver and McLoughlin (1997) as for the types of

interaction in the form of interaction observation form.

Appendix B.Interaction Observation Form Type of Interaction Example Social

Teacher-student talk establishing and developing rapport

T: HelloSally, how areyou?

S: Verywellthankyou.

T: Great tohearfromyou; whatareyougoingto do for us? Procedural

Teacher-student dialogue involving

information exchange on course

requirements and procedures

S: Mr. Gray, can youtell me how

manypagesyouwant us towrite?

T: I’m lookingforabout 2 pages in total.

S: Can weuse a topic of ourownchoice? Expository

Student or teacher demonstrating knowledge

or skill in response to a direct request from another

T: Can anyonetell me how we say, “Today it is warm”? S: Samuidesu?

T: Not quite, it is… Explanatory

Teacher using student responses to explain

knowledge and develop content

T: This is how we ask thatquestion in Japanese…

Sally, can younow ask yourquestion?

S: Sallyasks her question…

T: Great Sally, but didyourememberto… John,

willyouplease ask yourquestion? Cognitive

Teacher providing constructive feedback to a

student to reflect and to consider an

alternative perspective/reality

T: Can youtell me whatyouthinkwasthe main

reasonfor his actions?

S: He wasangryandwantedtogeteven.

T: But wasthatall_ Whatabout his wishtoimprove

his positionandstanding?

S: I suppose he did but I thoughtthat he

wouldhavedone it differently.

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